Prof. Rhodes Makundi

Prof. Rhodes Makundi



Sokoine University of Agriculture
Institute of Pest Management
P.O. Box 3110
Morogoro, Tanzania.


Contact Information

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Professor Rhodes H. Makundi was born on 24th October 1954 in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. He had his undergraduate studies at the University of Dar es Salaam where he obtained a Bachelor of Science in Zoology, Botany, and Education in 1979. He joined the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK) in 1981 and graduated with a Masters degree in Applied Entomology in 1983.

In 1992 he joined the University of Newcastle (UK) for a Ph.D. graduating in 1996. He worked for the Ministry of Agriculture (Tanzania) as a Research Officer from 1980 to 1987. He has been employed by Sokoine University of Agriculture since 1987, with the current position of Research Professor. His main research interests are pest ecology and pest management technologies.

In the last 20 years, he has conducted intensive research on rodents focusing on their zoo-geographical distribution, ecology, disease transmission, and ecologically-based rodent pest management. He has published more than 130 articles being papers in international peer-reviewed journals and book chapters.

Academic Qualifications: 

  • Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)               (1976 – 79)    B.Sc. (Zoology, Botany and Education)
  • Newcastle upon Type (UK)            (1981 – 83)    M.Sc. (Applied Entomology)
  • Newcastle upon Tyne (UK)            (1992 – 96)    PhD   (Applied Entomology


  •       Small mammal ecology.
  •      Ecology of zoophilic diseases.
  •      Pest management technologies.
  •       Insects pest ecology and management


  • Capacity building in rodent research: Ecology, biodiversity and taxonomy of the rodent fauna of Tanzania. Funded by the Belgian Government through the SUA VLIR Programme (1998 – 2007).
  • STAPLERAT Project: Protecting staple crops in eastern Africa: integrated approaches for ecologically based field rodent pest management. INCO-DC contract number ICA4-CT-2000-30029 (European Union Funded) (2000 – 2003).
  • FOCAL-PANTIL Project: “Development of improved storage strategies, dissemination and integration with indigenous knowledge/practices to reduce post-harvest losses of cereals and pulses due to pests” (Funded by The FOCAL/PANTIL Programme, SUA (2003 – 2007).
  • Research Initiative Programme Project: Spatial and temporal prevalence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases affecting public health in the Rift Valley in Tanzania (Funded by the Belgian Government through the IUC-RIP programme) (2008 – 2012).
  • StopRats: Sustainable Technology to Overcome Pest Rodents in Africa Through Science (Funded by EU-ACP Science and Technology Programme) (2014 – 2017).
  • Rodent Outbreak Management to Improve Livelihoods of African Farmers (Funded by Agriculture Technology Innovation and Transfer/DFID – United Kingdom) (2014 – 2016).


Journal Articles and Book Chapters


Claus Thomas, Abdul Katakweba, Apia W . Massawe, Rodes H. Makundi, Robert S. Machangu and Stella Kessy. 2020 Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi in rodent fleas from areas with and without previous history of plague in Mbulu district, Tanzania. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol.14(2), pp. 65-70


Alex Mayamba, Robert M. Byamungu, Rhodes H. Makundi, Didas N. Kimaro, Moses Isabirye,| Apia W. Massawe, David Kifumba, Alice Nakiyemba, Herwig Leirs, Mshaka E. Mdangi,| Brian E. Isabirye, & Loth S. Mulungu 2019. Species composition and community structure of small pest rodents (Muridae) in cultivated and fallow fields in maize growing areas in Mayuge district, Eastern Uganda. Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9:7849–7860. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5371.

Emmanuel C.M. Mlyashimbi, Bram Vanden Broecke, Joachim Marien, Didas N. Kimaro, Akwilin J.P. Tarimo, Robert S. Machang’u, Moses Isabirye, Rhodes H. Makundi, Apia W. Massawe, Proches Hieronimo, David Kifumba, Herwig Leirs, Mashaka E. Mdangi, Steven R. Belmain, Loth S. Mulungu 2019. Soil type influences population dynamics and survival of the Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) in semi-arid areas in Tanzania. Crop Protection 124 https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cropro.2019.05.023.



 Josef Bryja, Hana Konviˇcková, Anna Bryjová, Ondˇrej Mikula, Rhodes Makundi, Wilbert N. Chitaukali, Radim ˇSumbera 2018. Differentiation underground: Range-wide multilocus genetic structure of the silvery mole-rat does not support current taxonomy based on mitochondrial sequences. Mammalian Biology 93: 82-92.


 Mlyashimbi, Emmanuel C. M., Joachim Mariën, Didas N.Kimaro, Akwilin J. P. Tarimo, Moses Isabirye, Rhodes H. Makundi, Apia W. Massawe, Mashaka E. Mdangi, David Kifumba, Alice Nakiyemba, Herwig Leirs, Steven R. Belmain, Loth S. Mulungu & Fatih Yildiz (2018) Relationships between seasonal changes in diet of Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) and its breeding patterns in semi-arid areas in Tanzania, Cogent Food & Agriculture, 4:1, 1-13, DOI: 10.1080/23311932.2018.1507509


Bram Vanden BROECKE, Benny BORREMANS, Joachim MARIËN, Rhodes H MAKUNDI, Apia W MASSAWE, Herwig LEIRS and Nelika K HUGHES 2018Does exploratory behavior or activity in a wild mouse explain susceptibility to virus infection? Current Zoology 64(5):585-592. doi/10.1093/cz/zox053/4139746/



 Gryseels S, Baird SJE, Borremans B, Makundi R, Leirs H, Gouey de Bellocq J (2017) When Viruses Don’t Go Viral: The Importance of Host Phylogeographic Structure in the Spatial Spread of Arenaviruses. PLoS Pathogens 13(1): e1006073. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006073

 Mariën Joachim, Benny Borremans, Sophie Gryseels, Bram Vanden Broecke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Rhodes Makundi, Apia Massawe, Jonas Reijniers, Herwig Leirs 2017. Comparing arenavirus infection patterns in experimentally and naturally infected rodent hosts. BioRxiv. doi: preprint first posted online Feb. 25, 2017;

 Lourens H. Swanepoel, Corrie M. Swanepoel, Peter R. Brown, Seth J. Eiseb, Steven M. Goodman, Mark Keith, Frikkie Kirsten, Herwig Leirs, Themb’alilahlwa A. M. Mahlaba, Rhodes H. Makundi, Phanuel Malebane, Emil F. von Maltitz, Apia W. Massawe, Ara Monadjem, Loth S. Mulungu, Grant R. Singleton, Peter J. Taylor, Voahangy Soarimalala, Steven R. Belmain 2017. A systematic review of rodent pest research in Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming systems: Are we
asking the right questions? PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174554. pone.0174554

 Joachim Marien, Benny Borremans, Sophie Gryseels, Bram Vanden Broecke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Rhodes Makundi, Apia Massawe, Jonas Reijniers,and Herwig Leirs 2017. Arenavirus Dynamics in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Rodents.EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1256-7

 Apia W. Massawe, Rhodes H. Makundi, Zhibin Zhang, Ginethon Mhamphi, Ming Liu, Hong-Jun Li and Steven R. Belmain 2017.mEffect of synthetic hormones on reproduction in Mastomys natalensis. Journal of Pest Science  DOI 10.1007/s10340-017-0894-4 

 Bram Vanden BROECKE, Benny BORREMANS,Joachim MARIËN, Rhodes H MAKUNDI, Apia W MASSAWE, Herwig LEIRS and Nelika K HUGHES 2017. Does exploratory behavior or activity in a wild mouse explain susceptibility to virus infection? Current Zoology. doi/10.1093/cz/zox053/4139746/



Gryseels Sophie, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Rhodes Makundi, Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Vladimir Mazoch, Radim Šumbera, Jan Zima jr, Herwig Leirs and Stuart J.E. Baird (2016) Genetic distinction between contiguous urban and rural multimammate mice in Tanzania despite gene flowJournal of Evolutionary Biology 29 (6): 1952-1967 ( DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12919) 

 Sabuni, C.A., N.Van Houtte, S. Gryseels, L.S. Maganga, R.H.Makundi, H, Leirs and J. Gouy de Bellocq.
2016.  Genetic structure and diversity of the black and rufous sengi in Tanzanian coastal forests. Journal of Zoology. Doi:10.1111/jzo.12384

Benny Borremans, Jonas Reijniers, Nelika K. Hughes, Stephanie S. Godfrey, Sophie Gryseels, Rhodes H.
 and Herwig Leirs 2016. Nonlinear scaling of foraging contacts with rodent population density.  Oikos– doi:10.1111/oik.03623


BENNY BORREMANS, VINCENT SLUYDTS, RHODES H. MAKUNDI, & HERWIG LEIRS (2015) Evaluation of short-, mid- and long-term effects of toe clipping on a wild rodent. Wildlife Research 42:143-148.

Sophie Gryseels, Toni Rieger,Lisa Oestereich, Bart Cuypers, Bennt Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Stephan Gunther, Joelle Gouy de Bellocq (2015) Gairo virus, a novel arenavirus of the widespread Mastomys natalensis: Genetically divergent, but ecologically similar to Lassa and Morogoro viruses. Virology 476: 249-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.12.011

Douglas J. McCauley, Daniel J. Salkeld, Hillary S. Young, Rhodes H. Makundi, Rodolfo Dirzo, Ralph P. Eckerlin, Eric F. Lambin, Lynne Gaffikin, Michel Barry, Kristofer M. Helgen 2015. Effects of land use on plague (Yersinia pestis) activity in rodents in Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92 (4): 776-783.  doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0504

Makundi Rhodes H., Apia W.  Massawe, Benny Borremans, Anne Laudisoit a Abdul Katakweba (2015). We are connected: Flea-host association networks in the plague outbreak focus in the Rift Valley, northern Tanzania. Wildlife Research 42, 196–206.

 Meheretu Yonas,, Kiros Welegerima, Vincent Sluydts, Hans Bauer, Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Jozef Deckers, Rhodes Makundi and Herwig Leirs (2015) Reproduction and survival of rodents in crop fields: the effects of rainfall, crop stage and stone-bund density. Wildlife Research 42(2) 158-164

Gryseels Sophie, Herwig Leirs, Rhodes Makundi & Joele de Bellocq 2015. Polymorphism in vkorc1 Gene of Natal Multimammate Mice, Mastomys natalensis, in Tanzania. Journal of Heredity  (2015) 106 (5): 637-643. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esv054

 Christopher A. Sabuni, Vincent Sluydts, Loth S. Mulungu, Samwel S. Maganga, Rhodes H. Makundi and Herwig Leirs 2015. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests. Integrative Zoology  10: 409–423 DOI: 10.1111/1749-4877.12159.


 Meheretu, Y., Sluydts, V., Welegerima, K., Bauer, H., Teferi, K., Yirga, G. Mulungu, L. Haile, M., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Makundi, R., Leirs, H. (2014) Rodent
abundance, stone bund density and its effects on crop damage in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia, Crop Protection 55:  61-67


 Borremans, B., Hughes, N.K., Reijniers, J., Sluydts, V., Katakweba, A.A.S., Mulungu, L.S., Sabuni, C.A., Makundi, R.H., Leirs, H. (2014). Happily together forever:
temporal variation in spatial patterns and complete lack of territoriality in a promiscuous rodent. Population Ecology 56(1): 109-118

 Jestina V. Katandukila, Chris T. Chimimba,Chris G. Faulkes, Rhodes Makundi & Nigel C. Bennett (2014) Sweeping the house clean: burrow architecture and seasonal digging activity in the East African root rat,Tachyoryctes splendens from Tanzania” Journal of Zoology. published online: 30 APR 2014.  DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12143

 ChristopherA. Sabuni, Natalie Houite, Samwel L. S. Maganga, Rhodes H. Makundi, HerwigLeirs, Joelle  Gouyde Bellocq (2014) Development of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in the black and rufous sengi, Rhynchocyon petersi  Conservation Genetics Resources 09/2014



  1. Mdangi , L.S. Mulungu , A.W. Massawe , S.J. Eiseb , V. Tutjavi , F. Kirsten , T. Mahlaba , P.Malebane , E. von Maltitz , A.
    Monadjem , N. Dlamini , R.H. Makundi & S.R. Belmain (2013): Assessment of rodent damage to stored maize (Zea
    mays L.) on smallholder farms in Tanzania, International Journal of Pest Management, 59:1, 55-62


Alexis Ribas, Sergi López, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, and Joelle Gouy de Bellocq (2013) Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from two rodents, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus in Tanzania. Journal of Parasitology


 Taylor  Peter J., Sarah Downs F., Ara Monadjem, Seth J. Eiseb, Loth S. Mulungu, Apia W.
Massawe, Themb’a A. Mahlaba, Frikkie Kirsten, Emil Von Maltitz, Phanue Malebane, Rhodes H. Makundi, Jennifer Lamb, Steven R. Belmain 2012. Experimental treatment -control studies of ecologically-based rodent management in Africa: Balancing conservation and pest management. Wildlife Research 39: 51 61

  Castiglia, R., E. Solano, R. H. MakundiJ. Hulselmans, E. Verheyen, and P. Colangelo. 2012Rapid chromosomal evolution in the mesic four-striped grass rat Rhabdomys dilectus (Rodentia, Muridae) evaluated by mtDNA phylogeographic analysis. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 50(2): 165-172.  

Massawe A.W. , Rhodes H. Makundi, Loth S. Mulungu, Abdul Katakweba & Teresia N. Shayo 2012. Breeding dynamics of rodent species inhabiting farm-fallow mosaic fields in Central Tanzania. African Zoology 47(1): 128–137

Gundi Vijay A.K.B., Michael Y. Kosoy, Rhodes H. Makundi, and Anne Laudisoit 2012. Identification of Diverse Bartonella Genotypes among Small Mammals from Democratic Republic of Congo and Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 87(2): 319-326.

Abdul A.S. Katakweba, Loth S. Mulungu,  Seth J. Eiseb,Themb’alilahlwa A. Mahlaba, Rhodes H. Makundi, Apia W. Massawe, Benny Borremans, Steven R. Belmain. 2012. Prevalence of haemoparasites, leptospires and cocobacilli with potential for human infection in the blood of rodents and shrews from selected localities in Tanzania, Namibia and Swaziland. African Zoology 47(1):119–127


Ribas, R. Makundi & J. Goüy de Bellocq. 2012 Paraconcinnum leirsi n. sp. (Trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae) from rodents in Tanzania and its phylogenetic position within the dicrocoelids. African Zoology 47(2): 326-331


 Borremans Benny, Herwig Leirs, Stephan Günther, Rhodes Makundi and Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq (2011). Presence of Mopeia Virus, an African arenavirus, related to biotope and individual rodent host characteristics; implications for virus transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11(8): 1125-1131.


 Makundi R.H.A. Katakweba, A.W. Massawe, P. Thullier, C.D. Mwalimu, G. Mgode and G. Mchau 2011. Field Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test using dipstick assay for retrospective confirmation of plague infection in humans in Mbulu District, Tanzania. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (Accepted; IN PRESS).

Makundi  Rhodes H. and Apia W. Massawe. 2011. Ecologically-based rodent management in Africa: Potential and Challenges.
Wildlife Research 38(7): 588-595.

 Ara Monadjem, Themb’a A. Mahlaba, Nomfundo Dlamini, Seth J. Eiseb, Steven R. Belmain, Loth S. Mulungu, Apia W. Massawe, Rhodes H. Makundi., Katrine Mohr, Peter J. Taylor  2011. Impact of crop cycle on movement patterns of pest rodent species between fields and houses in Africa. Wildlife Research38(7): 603-609

 Christiane Denys, Aude Lalis, Émilie Lecompte, Raphaël Cornette, Sibyle Moulin, Rhodes H. Makundi, Robert S. Machang’u, Vitaly Volobouev and Vladimir M. Aniskine 2011. A faunal survey in Kingu Pira (south Tanzania), with new karyotypes of several small mammals and the description of a new Murid species (Mammalia, Rodentia). Zoosystema, 33(1):5-47.

Massawe, A.WMulungu, L.S, Makundi, R.H, Dlamini, N., Eiseb. S., Kirsten, F., Mahlaba, T., Malebane, P., von Maltitz, E., , Monadjem. A., Taylor, P., Tutjavi, V., and Steven R. Belmain. 2011. Spatial and temporal population dynamics of rodents in three geographically different regions in Africa: Implication for ecologically- based rodent management. African Zoology 46(2): 393-405.

Mulungu, Loth S., Apia W.
Massawe, Jan Kennis, Dieter Crauwels, Seth Eiseb, Themb’alilahlwa A. Mahlaba,
Ara Monadjem, Rhodes H. Makundi,
Abdul A.S. Katakweba, Herwig Leirs & Steven R. Belmain. 2011. Differences in diet between two rodent
species, Mastomys natalensis and Gerbilliscus vicinus,  in fallow land habitats in central Tanzania.
African Zoology 46(2): 387-392.

Mulungu,L.S., Themba A. Mahlaba, Apia Massawe, Jan Kennis, Dieter Crawels, eth Eiseb,
Ara Monajem, Rhodes H. Makundi, Abdul Katakweba, Herwig Leirs and Steven Belmain 2011. Dietary differences of the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis, Smith, 1834) across different habitats and seasons in Tanzania and Swaziland. Wildlife Research 38(7): 640-646. 

Massawe, A.W. and R.H. Makundi 2011. The type of farming practice may affect the
movement and reproduction pattern of rodents crop fields: A case study of Mastomys natalensisJournal of Biological Science 11(1): 22-30. 


Günther Stephan,  Guy Hoofd, Remi Charrel,  Christina Röser, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Graham
Lloyd, Christopher Sabuni, Ron Verhagen, Guido van der Groen, Jan Kennis, Abdul Katakweba, Robert Machang’u, Rhodes Makundi, and Herwig Leirs.  (2010). A Mopeia-related arenavirus in Mastomys natalensis in Morogoro, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(12): 2008-2012

Meheretu Yonas, Kiros Welegerima, Seppe Deckers, Dirk Raes, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs 2010. Farmers’ perspectives of rodent damage and management from the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Crop Protection 29(6)): 532-539.


Goüy de Bellocq,
Joëlle, Benny Borremans, Abdul Katakweba, Rhodes
, Stuart J.E. Baird, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Stephan Günther and Herwig
Leirs (2010). Sympatric occurrence of three arenaviruses in Morogoro, Tanzania.
Emerging Infectious Diseases 16
(4):  16:692–695.


 Mziray, H.A., R. H. Makundi, M. Mwatawala, A. Maerere, M. De Meyer (2010). Spatial and temporal abundance of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), in Morogoro, Tanzania. Crop Protection 29 (5): 454-461


 Mziray Hendry A., Rhodes H. Makundi, Maulid Mwatawala, Amon Maerere, and Marc De
Meyer (2010). Host use of Bactrocera latifirons, a New Invasive Tephritid Species in Tanzania.
Journal of Economic Entomology 103(1):70-76.


 Makundi Rhodes, H.,Ntuli Swila, Misangu Robert N., Reuben Shazia W.M., Mwatawala Maulid, Sikira
Anna, Kilonzo Bukheti, Lyimo Herman, Massawe Apia W., and Ishengoma,
Christine.  (2010). Dynamics of infestation and losses of stored maize due to the larger grain borer  (Prostephanus truncatus Horn) and maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky).  Archives Of
Phytopathology And Plant Protection
, 43 (14): 1346 – 1355

 Mwatawala, M., Makundi, R., Maerere, A.P. and De Meyer M. 2010. Occurrence of the Solanum fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tanzania. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 6: 83-89.  

 Mwatawala M., A. P. Maerere; R. Makundi; M. De Meyer (2010). Incidence and host range of the melon fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Central Tanzania. International Journal of Pest Management 56 (3): 265 – 273

Lausdisoit, A., Neerinckx, S., Makundi, R.H., Leirs H. and Krasnov B.2010. Plague in Tanzania: from a host and vector perspective. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10:101

Leirs,  H., Neerinckx, S., Laudisoit, A. and Makundi, R.H. 2010. Emergence and growth of plague foci in Africa. VectorBorne Zoonotic Diseases 10: 97


M.W. Mwatawala, M. De Meyer, R.H. Makundi, and A.P. Maerere 2009. An overview of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) invasions and their speculated dominancy over native fruit fly species in Tanzania Journal of Entomology 6 (1): 18-27 (2009)

Laudisoit Anne, Herwig Leirs, Rhodes H. Makundi and Boris R. Krasnov (2009). Seasonal and habitat dependence of species composition of flea assemblages parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania. Integrative Zoology 4(2): 196-212


Makundi, Rhodes H., Apia W. Massawe, Loth S. Mulungu, and Abdul Katakweba (2009) Diversity and population dynamics of rodents in farm-fallow mosaic fields in Central Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology  48: 313-320.

 Laudisoit, Anne, Simon Neerinckx, Rhodes H. Makundi, Herwig Leirs and Boris R. Krasnov  (2009).  Are local plague endemicity and ecological characteristics of vectors and reservoirs related? A case study in north-east Tanzania. Current  Zoology 55(3): 200-211.

 Mwatawala, M.W., M. De Meyer, R.H. Makundi and A.P. Maerere (2009). Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research , 99, 629-641.

Mwatawala Maulid W., Marc De Meyer, Rhodes H. Makundi and Amon P. Maerere (2009). Design of an ecologically-based IPM program for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Tanzania. Fruits. Fruits , 64: 1–8





 Castiglia Riccardo, Rhodes Makundi and Marco Corti. (2007). The origin of unusual sex chromosome constitution in Acomys sp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Tanzania. Genetica 131(2): 201-207.

Massawe, A.W., Rwamugira, W., Leirs, H., Makundi, R.H.  and Mulungu, L.S. (2007). Do farming practices influence population dynamics of rodents? A case study of the multi-mammate field rats, Mastomys natalensis, in Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 45(3): 293-301.

Sariah, J.E. and Makundi, R.H. (2007). Effect of time sowing of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris  L.) on infestation by two species of the Bean Stem Maggot, Ophiomyia spencerella and Ophiomyia phaseoli (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 40(1): 45 –51.

LAUDISOIT Anne, Herwig LEIRS,  Rhodes H. MAKUNDI, Stefan Van Dongen, Stephen Davis, Simon Neerinckx, Jozef Deckers and  Roland LIBOIS  (2007). Plague and the human flea, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(5):687-693.

Mwatawala, M., M De Meyer, I.M. White, Maerere, A. and R.H. Makundi  (2007). Detection of the solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hende) in Tanzania (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 131(7): 501-503.

Massawe A.W., Mrosso, F. P., Makundi R.H. and L.S. Mulungu. (2007). Breeding patterns of Arvicanthis neumanni in central Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 46, 320–324

Mulungu, Loth S., Rhodes H. Makundi, Apia W. Massawe and Herwig, Leirs. (2007). Relationship between sampling intensity and precision for estimating damage to maize caused by rodents. Integrative Zoology 2: 131-135.

Makundi, R.H., Massawe, A.W., Mulungu, L.S. (2007). Reproduction and population dynamics of Mastomys natalensis in agricultural landscape in the western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Integrative Zoology 2(4): 233-238.



 Reuben, S.O.W.M., Masunga. M., Makundi, R., Misangu, R.N., Kilonzo, B.S., Mwatawala, M., Lyimo, H.F., Ishengoma, C.G., Msuya, D.G., and Mulungu, L.S. (2006). Control of cowpea  weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculatus L.) grains using botanicals. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 5(1): 91-97.


Castiglia, R., Bekele, A., Makundi, R.H., Oguge, N., Corti, M. (2006). Chromosomal diversity in the genus Arvicanthis from the Horn and East Africa. A taxonomical and phylogenetic evaluation. Journal
of Zoological Systematics
44 (3): 223 – 235.


Mwatawala, M.W., M. De Meyer, R.H. Makundi and A.P. Maerere (2006). Biodiversity of fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at orchards in different agro-ecological zones of the Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Fruits 61 (5) 1 – 22.


 Mwatawala, M.W., M. De Meyer, R.H. Makundi and A.P. Maerere (2006). Seasonality and
host utilization of the invasive fruit fly, Bactocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Central Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology. 130 (9-10): 530-537.


Davis, S.,Makundi, R.H. Machangu, R.S. and Leirs, H. (2006).  Demographic and spatio-temporal variation in human plague at a persistent focus in Tanzania.  Acta Tropica. 100: 133-1411.


Mgoo, V.H.,R.H. Makundi, B. Pallangyo, F. Schulthess, N. Jiang and C.O. Omwega (2006).
Yield loss due to the stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Cerambidae) at different nitrogen application rates to maize. Annales Soceiete Entomologique de France 42(3-4): 487-494.


Aude Lalis,  Emilie Lecompte,  Raphaël Cornette, Sybille Moulin,  Robert S. Machangu,  Rhodes Makundi, Vladimir M. Aniskine,  Christiane Denys (2006). Polymorphism of the age population structure of two wild Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae) Tanzanian habitat samples: a multicriteria comparison.  Mammalia 70(3/4): 293-299

 Makundi, R.H., Massawe, A.W., and Mulungu, L.S. (2006). Breeding seasonality and
population dynamics of three rodent species in the Magamba Forest Reserve in the Western Usambara Mountains, north-east Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 45: 17-21.


  • Colangelo Paolo, Corti Marco, Verheyen Erick, Flavia Annesi, Oguge Nicholas, Makundi Rhodes and Verheyen Walter.  (2005). Mitochondrial phylogeny reveals differential modes of chromosomal evolution in the genus Tatera (Rodentia: Gerbellinae) in Africa. Molecular Phylogentics and Evolution. 56: 556 – 568.
  • Makundi, R.H. and Sariah, J.E. (2005). A functional response of braconid parasitoids of the bean stem maggot, Ophiomyia spencerella (Diptera, Agromyzidae), in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Tanzania. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 112(5), 478-484.
  •  Makundi, R.H., Massawe, A.W.,  Mulungu L.S. (2005). Rodent population fluctuations in three ecologically heterogeneous  locations in north-east, central and south-west Tanzania.  Belgian Journal of Zoology 135. (Supplement): 159-165.
  • Makundi, R.H., Bekele, A.,  Leirs, H., Massawe, A.W.,  Rwamugira, W. and Mulungu,  L.S. (2005). Farmer’s perceptions of rodents as crop pests: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in rodent pest management in Tanzania and Ethiopia. Belgian Journal of Zoology (Supplement). 135: 153-157. 
  • Corti, M., Castiglia, R., Colangelo, P., Capanna, E., Beolchini, F.,  Bekele, A., Oguge, N.,  Makundi, R.H., Sichilima, A.,  and Leirs, H. (2005).  Cytogenetics of rodent species from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Belgian Journal of Zoology (Supplement). 135: 197-216.
  •  Massawe, A.W., Rwamugira, W., Leirs, H., Makundi, R.H.  and Mulungu, L.S. (2005). Influence of land preparation methods and vegetation cover on population abundance of Mastomys
    in Morogoro, Tanzania. Belgian Journal of Zoology (Supplement). 135: 187-190.
  •  Mulungu, L.S.,  Makundi, R.H.,  Leirs, H., Massawe, A.W.,  Machang’u, R.S.  and Ngowo,
    V.( 2005). Spatial patterns and distribution of rodent damage in maize fields in Tanzania. Belgian Journal of Zoology (Supplement). 135: 183- 185.
  •  Ngowo, V., Mulungu, L.S., Lodal, J.,  Makundi, R.H.,  Leirs, H., and Massawe, A.W.  (2005). Evaluation of thiram and cinnamamide for protection of seeds against multimammate rats, Mastomys natalensis, in maize fields in Tanzania. Belgian Journal of Zoology
    . 135: 179 – 181.
  • Odhiambo, R. Makundi, R.H.,  Leirs, H. and Verhagen, R. (2005). Community structure and seasonal abundance of rodents of maize farms in south-western Tanzania  Belgian Journal of Zoology (Supplement). 135: 113-118.



Banwo, O.O., Winter, S., Koerbbler, M., Abdallah, R.S. and Makundi, R.H. (2004). Molecular variability and distribution of rice yellow mottle virus in Tanzania. Acta Virologica 48: 69-71


  • Makundi R.H. and Massawe, A.W. (2003). Recent advances in studies of the ecology of Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834) (Rodentia: Muridae) in Tanzania, East Africa. pp
    242 – 245. In: G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs & D. M. Spratt (eds). Rats, Mice
    and People: Rodent Biology and Management
    . Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  •  Mulungu, Loth S., Makundi, Rhodes H. and Leirs, Herwig. (2003). Robustness of techniques for estimating rat damage and yield loss in maize fields. pp  224 –228. In: Singleton, G.R. Hinds, L.A., Krebs, C.J. and Spratt, D.M. (Eds.). Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management., Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  • Massawe, A. W., Leirs, H., Rwamugira, W. P. & Makundi, R. H. (2003). Effect of land preparation methods on spatial distribution of rodents in crop fields. Pp 229-232. In: G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs & D. M. Spratt (Eds)., Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  • Mulungu, L. S., Makundi, R. H., Leirs, H., Massawe, A. W., Vibe-Petersen, S. &
    Stenseth, N. C. (2003).  The rodent-density-damage function in maize fields at an early  growth stage. pp. 301 – 303. In: G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs & D. M. Spratt (eds). Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  • Ngowo, V., Lodal, J., Mulungu, L. S., Makundi, R. H., Massawe, A. W. & Leirs, H. (2003) Evaluation of thiram and cinnamamide as potential repellents against maize-seed depredation by the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, in Tanzania. Pp 260 – 261.In: G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs & D. M. Spratt (Eds). Rats, Mice and People: Rodent Biology and Management. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  • Makundi, R.H.,  B.S. Kilonzo and A. W. Massawe  (2003). Interaction between rodent species in
    agro-forestry habitats in the western Usambara mountains, northeast Tanzania, and its potential for plague transmission to humans. Pp 20-24. In: G. R. Singleton, L. A. Hinds, C. J. Krebs & D. M. Spratt (Eds). Rats, Mice and People. Rodent Biology and Management. Australian
    Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, 564 p. ISBN 186320 356 7.
  •  Castiglia, R., Corti, M., Colangelo, P.,  Annesi, F.,  Cataglia, E., Verheyen, W., Sichilima, A. and Makundi, R. (2003). Chromosomal and molecular characterization of Aethomys kaiseri from Zambia and Aethomys chrysophilus from Tanzania (Rodentia: Muridae). Hereditas 139: 81 –
  •  Stenseth, N.C., Leirs, H., Skonhoft, A., Davis, S.,  Pech, R., Andresassen, H.P.  Singleton, G., Lima, M.,  Machangu, R.M.,  Makundi,R.H., Zhang, Z., Brown, P., Shi, D. and Wan, X. (2003). Mice and Rats: dynamics and bio-economics of agricultural rodent pests. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 1(7). 367 – 375





  • Banwo,O.O., Makundi, R.H.,  Abdallah, R.S and Mbapila, J.C. (2001). Identification of vectors of rice yellow virus in Tanzania. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 33 (5): 395 – 403
  • Banwo,O.O., Makundi, R.H.,  Abdallah, R.S and Mbapila, J.C. (2001). First report  of Dactylispa lenta Weise (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a vector of rice yellow mottle virus. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 36 (1-2): 189 – 192.
  • Banwo, O.O., Makundi, R.H., Abdallah, R.S. and Mpapila, J.C. (2001). A new species of Chaetocnema: vector of rice yellow mottle virus in Tanzania. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Sciences Vol 29 (1): 61-65.
  • Banwo,O.O., Makundi, R.H.,  Abdallah, R.S and Mbapila, J.C. (2001). Bionomics of vectors and dynamics of rice yellow mottle virus in Tanzania. International Rice Research Notes.26(2):41-42.
  • Kashenge, Sophia, S. and Rhodes H. Makundi (2001). Comparative efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) formulations and Amitaz (Mitac) against the two spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) on tomatoes: mortality, repellence, feeding deterrence and effects on predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. Vol 34: pp 265-273.
  • Fadda Carlo,  Ricardo Castiglia, Paolo Colangelo, Marco Corti, Robert Machangu, Rhodes Makundi, Alessandra Scanzani, Protas Tesha, Walter Verheyen, and Ernesto Cappana (2001). The rodent fauna of Tanzania: a cytotaxonomic report from the Maasai Steppe. Rend Mat. Acc. Lincei.- Zoologia 12: 29-49.






  • Makundi, H. (1999). Towards an ecological approach for management of plague reservoirs and vectors in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, East Africa. Pp 68 – 69. In Zhi-Bin Zhang, Lyn Hinds, Grant Singleton and Zu-Wang Wang (Eds) Rodent Biology and Management. Australian Centre for International Agriculture, Canberra. ACIAR Technical Report no. 45. (ISSBN1 86320 256 0). 146 pp.




  • Makundi, R.H., Kilonzo, B.S. and Sabuni, C.A. (1996). Laboratory evaluation of the efficacy of permethrin impregnated overalls for protection against Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). International Pest Control. Vol 38 (2): 56 – 57.



  • Makundi, R.H. (1995). Annual changes of reproduction in rodents in the Western Usambara Mountains, north- east Tanzania. Journal  of African Zoology 109: 15 -21.
  • Makundi, R.H. and Wilkins, R.M. (1995). Observations on variation in susceptibility of  some sorghum cultivars to infestation of the seed by the lesser grain borer, Rhizopertha  dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Fac. Landbouww. Univ. Gent 60/3a:   811 – 817. 



  •  Makundi, R.H. and Kilonzo, B.S. (1994). Seasonal dynamics of rodent fleas and its implication on control strategies in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Journal of
    Applied Entomology 118
    : 165 – 171.



  • Kilonzo, B.S., Makundi, R.H. and Mbise, T.J. (1992). A decade of plague epidemiology  and control in the Western Usambara Mountains, north-east Tanzania. Acta Tropica 50: 323 – 329.
  •  Kilonzo, B.S., Mbise T.J. and Makundi, R.H. (1992). Plague in Lushoto district, Tanzania, 1980 – 1988. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86: 444 – 445



  •  Makundi, R.H. (1991). Effectiveness of cyfluthrin dust for control and protection of shelled maize against infestation by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)  (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Tanzania. International  Journal of Pest Management 37(3): 218 – 220.


  •  Makundi, R.H., Mbise, T.J. and Kilonzo, B.S. (1991). Observations on the role of rodents in crop losses in Tanzania and control strategies. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin (Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Veterinary Science) 29(4): 465 – 474.




  • Makundi, R.H. and Kilonzo, B.S. (1990). Activity of synergized pyrethrins against fleas:  Xenopyslla brasiliensis, Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis  (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in the laboratory. Pyrethrum Post 18(1): 3-6.



  • Makundi, R.H. (1989). Preliminary  observations on the effect of pyrethrins on Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Pyrethrum Post 17 (3): 95 – 97.



  • Makundi, R.H. (1987). The spread of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:   Bostrichidae) in Africa and Measures for its Control. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 35 (4): 121 – 126. 



  • Makundi, R.H. (1986). The Toxicity of Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin to the Larger Grain  Borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera : Bostrichidae). International Pest Control    28 (3): 79 – 81.



  • Makundi, R.H. (1984). Storage Structures, Storage Techniques and Possible Improvement  for Better Control of Prostephanus truncatus
    (Horn) (Coleoptera : Bostrichidae). African  Journal  of Plant Protection 3 (2): 112- 120.



  • Makundi, R.H. (1983). Rodent Pest Problems and Control strategies in Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Bulletin 5 (2): 27 – 29.


Books and Book Chapters


Makundi R.H. (Ed). 2006. Management of Selected crop pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. 487 p. ISBN 9976-1-0210-0


  1. Makundi, R.H, Oguge, N.O. and Mwanjabe, P.S. (1999) Rodent Pest Management in East  Africa – An Ecological Approach. Pp. 460 – 476. In: Singleton, G., Hinds, L. Leirs, H., and Zhang, Z. (eds). Ecologically-based Rodent Management. Australian Center For International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia (ISBN 1863202625), 494 p
  2. Makundi R.H. 2006. Challenges in Pest Management in Agriculture: African and Global Perspectives. pp. 1 – 18. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 99761  0210  0). 487 p.
  1. R.H. Makundi, F.P. Mrosso and A.W. Massawe 2006. Sorghum: The Crop, the Pests and Their Management – pp. 33 –47. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 9976 1 0210  0). 487 p.
  2. Mrosso, F.P. and Makundi R.H. 2006. Field Pests of Maize and their Management- pp. 48 – 65. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 9976  10210  0). 487 p.
  3. Makundi R.H., A.W. Massawe and H.S. Laswai 2006. Storage and Protection of Durable Food Crops and Their Products in Tanzania – pp 186 – 205. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam.(487 p).
  4. Makundi, R.H., B.E.M.A. Uronu and W. Mbise 2006. Biology, Ecology and Management of Infestations of the Larger Grain Borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn), in Tanzania – pp 206 – 220. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd.,Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 9976  10210  0). 487 p.
  5. 7. Makundi, H., A.W. Massawe, L.S. Mulungu 2006. Ecological Considerations for Management of Rodent Pests in Tanzania – 221 –236. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN9976  1
    0210  0). 487 p.
  6. A.W. Massawe, R.H. Makundi, V. Ngowo and L.S. Mulungu 2006. Vertebrate Pests and Their Management: A General Overview – pp 237 – 248. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 9976  1 0210  0). 487 p.
  7. Mulungu, L. S., Makundi, R. H. & Massawe, A. W. Characteristics of rodent damage to major crops in Tanzania and crop loss assessment techniques – pp 249 – 268. In: Makundi R.H. (Ed.) 2006. Management of Selected Crop Pests in Tanzania. Tanzania Publishing House Ltd., Dar es Salaam. (ISBN 9976  1  02100). 487 p
  8. Makundi Rhodes (2018) Neglected and underutilized rodents. Pp 91-117. In. Kasolo W., Chemining’wa G. & Temu A. (Eds.) Neglected and Underutilized Species (NUS) for Improved Food Security and Resilience to Climate Change. A Contextualized Learning Manual for African Colleges and Universities. ANAFE, Nairobi. (151 p. (ISBN 978-9966-108-10-4.



Extension Materials

  • Makundi R.H., Misangu, R.N., Reuben, S.O.W.M., Kilonzo, B.S., Ishengoma, C.G., Lyimo,
    H., and Mwatawala, M. 2005. Uboreshaji wa vihenge, hifadhi bora na udhibiti wa
    viumbe waharibifu wa mazao ghalani. Chapisho namba FOCAL 4 – 2005.


Other Research Papers & writings

(i) Professorial
Inaugural Lecture
Makundi R.H. (2009) The Mysteries of the Rats. Sokoine University of Agriculture, 25th November 2009. 49p.

(ii) Consultancy Report
Makundi Rhodes, H
.,Ngowo Victoria, Massawe Apia, W. and Mshuza Eustace 2010. Community-Based Rodent Management  in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Consultancy Reports. Belgian Technical Cooperation/ Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives. Tanzania. 99 pp.



  • Paolo Colangelo, Herwig Leirs, Rhodes H. Makundi, Margo D’aes, Nicholas O. Oguge, Erik Verheyen. Skull shape variation in the genus Mastomys (Rodentia, murinae): influence of ecogeographic and


Leadership at the University

  1. 2004-2006: Associate Director, Pest Management Centre
  2. July 2006- June 2014: Director, Pest Management Centre
  3. July 2006 – June 2014. SUA Coordinator of SUA – APOPO
  4. June 2016- to date:  Deputy Centre Leader, Africa Centre of Excellence for Innovative Rodent Pest Management and Biosensor Technology Development


Supervision of undergraduates and postgraduate students

1 Undergraduates(BSc)
1. Fatuma Mohamed (BSc. Food Science and Technology) Title: The Effect of Neem Seed Powder incorporated in Feed on the Larvae of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

2. Anna Samwel (BSc. Agriculture General) Title: Effect of Tephrosia vogelli on feed intake and body weight of white mice. 

  1. 2001
    Kessy, Radegunda, F.I. (BSc. Agriculture General). Title: The efficacy of paddy husk ash against the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) and maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) in maize grains.
  2. 2011
    Lugeimamu Amon. (BSc Agriculture). Title: Assessment of invertebrates diversity in cultivated and non cultivated areas at SUA.

5 . Matingisa Esther (BSc. Wildlife Management)  Title: A study of the diversity of small mammals in Kigurunyembe natural forest, Morogoro

  1. Lumuliko Bakari (BSc. Wildlife Management)  Title: Investigation of the diversity of invertebrates in the Kigurunyembe natural fores, Morogorot
  2. Dunia Almasi (BSc. Wildlife Management)  Title: Plant diversity in Kigurunyembe natural forest, Morogoro

Postgraduates: Master of Science


  1. Mwatawala Maulid: Title of dissertation: Development of a computer data base for integrated pest management in selected
    crops for use in Tanzania

2. Nyabilisi Maliyatabu Ng’homa:  Title of Dissertation: Effectiveness of four botanical extracts for control of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) (Hubner) and cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) (Glover) on cotton in Mwanza region.

3. Sophia Shaban Kashenge: Title of Dissertation: Comparative efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Amitraz (Mitac) against the two spotted spider mites (T. urticae) on tomatoes (Lycospercum esculatum)
4. Kamwela, D.S.:  Title of Dissertation: The response of the larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) (Horn) to varietal resistance in maize.
5. Mwinyi, W.A.: Title of Dissertation:Control of Cashew sucking bugs (Helopeltis anacardii, H. schoutedeni and Pseudotheraptus wayi by manipulating weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda,  populations in cashew nut trees.

6. Sariah, J.E.: Title of Dissertation: Influence of sowing time of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on level of infestation and parasitism of the bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia spp.).
7. Haule, John Bosco.: Title of Dissertation: The effect of extracts of neem  seed on survival and infestation of Thrips tabaci on onions.

8. Mrosso, F.P.: Title of Dissertation: Reproduction and population dynamics of Arvicanthis niloticus (Desmarest 1822) in Kilosa District, Tanzania.

9. Mgoo, Victor.: Title of dissertation: Maize yield losses attributed to the Stem Borer Chilo partelus (Swinhoe)(Lepidoptera: Cerambidae) in Eastern agro ecological zone of Tanzania.

  1. Nassoro Abdulla.: Title: Species and distribution of egg parasitoids of maize stem borers in Morogoro and Coast regions in Tanzania.


  1. Swila Ntuli. Title: Dynamics of infestation of maize by the Larger Grain Borer, Prostephanus truncatus and maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais in single and mixed populations

 12 Sabuni C.S. Title: Species composition and diversity of small mammals in the Saadani National Park, Tanzania.

  1. Fivawo Bernadette: Title: Efficacy of some botanical insecticides against common bean bruchids (Zabrotes subfasciatus Boh and Acanthoscelides obtectus Say)

14 Magina, F. Title: Spatial distribution and temporal abundance variation of three important insect pests of coffee in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

 15.Mziray, Henry, A. Title: Incidence, host utilization and seasonality of Solanum fruit fly, Bactocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Morogoro,Tanzania.

16.Muhidin Mabula Title: Host range and population dynamics of cotton strainers, Dysdercus spp. in Kilosa District,Tanzania.

.Kongola E. Title: Movements and home range of rodents in domestic and peridomestic areas in Berega village, Morogoro, Tanzania.

18. Aenea Saanya. Title: species diversity and abundance of of rodents and shrews in different habitats and seasons in the Northern sector of Selous Game Reserve,Tanzania
19. Ginethon Mhamphi. Title: “Laboratory evaluation of effects of quinestrol nd levonorgestrel on fertility and reproductive performance of multimammate rats, Mastomys natalensis”.

20. Zacharia Joseph Mseswa. Species diversity of small mammals in Mamiwa – Kisara North in Kilosa District, Tanzania.

Postgraduates: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


  1. Banwo, O. O. Title of thesis: Vector  identification, bionomics and molecular characterization of rice yellow mottle virus in Tanzania
  2.         2003
    Mulungu, L.S.  Title of thesis: Assessment of maize (Zea mais L.) damage and yield loss due to the multi-mammate rats, Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834) in the field.

    3. Richard O. Odhiambo. Title of thesis: Community structure and diet preference of rodent pests of maize (Zea mais L.) in central and southwestern Tanzania.

  3.   2007
    Mwatawala, Maulid. Title of Research Project: Host range, population dynamics and damage of fruits by fruit flies i Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

5. Kweka, E. Title of Research Project: Integrated control of Anopheles arabiensis for malaria management in northern Tanzania (registered with  Open University of Tanzania


6.Christopher Sabuni. Population ecology of Rhynchocyon petersi and Beamys hindei in selected coastal forests in and around Saadani National Park,  Tanzania.


  1. Msyani Edward Title of Research:  A comparative study of the population ecology of small mammals in areas with and without human activities
    in Kilimanjaro National Park – Tanzania.
  2. Kuruthumu Mamwende – PhD Research Title: Assessing the impacts of habitat fragmentation on the patterns of crop raiding by baboons
    and mangabeys, and potential parasite and microorganism transmission between humans and non-human primates in Tanzania.


  1. Saanya Aenea – Phd Research Title: Community Ecology of small mammals in the Selous Ecossyetem
  2. SSuuna James PhD Research Title: Effect of habitat disturbance on population dynamics and community structure of rodents in Mabira Central
    Forest Reserve, Uganda.
  3. Kiros Welegerema Gerlass – PhdTitle: Landscape ecology and Population Genetics of Stenoocepjalemys albipes in the Afro-Alpine Ecosystem in
  4. Sisiria Akoth. PhD Title- Diversity and population dynamics of rodents and ectoparasites in Mt Elgon Ecosystems Uganda.
  5. Kessy Stella. PhD Title: Ecology of rodents and their flea ectoparasites in plague endemic districts of Mbulu and Karatu, Tanzania



Membership in committees, boards and professional organizations


شرط بندی پرسپولیس شرط بندی استقلال شرط بندی روی تراکتورسازی تبریز شرط بندی روی سپاهان شرط بندی رئال مادرید بارسلونا شرط بندی شرط بندی psg سایت شرط بندی جام جهانی شرط بندی جام جهانی 2026 سایت شرط بندی جام جهانی 2026 بازی انفجار رایگان سایت انفجار ضریب بالا بهترین سایت شرط بندی فارسی شرط بندی بدون فیلتر شرط بندی بازی رولت شرط بندی پوکر شرط بندی مونتی شرط بندی سنگ کاغذ قیچی شرط بندی بلک جک کرش رویال بت پاسور شرط شرط بندی تخته نرد آنلاین انفجار 2 بت شرط بندی بازی اسلات شرط بندی بازی پوپ سایت سامان بت ریور پوکر 2024 سایت 4030bet ورود به بازی انفجار دنس بت شرط بندی انفجار دنس آموزش بازی پوکر سایت شرط بندی 123 بهترین شرط بندی بهترین سایت شرط بندی انفجار اپلیکیشن بازی انفجار دانلود بازی انفجار انفجار بازی ربات بازی انفجار کازینو آنلاین ایرانی انفجار پولساز ورود به بازی انفجار بازی انفجار با شارژ 10 تومن سایت bet betyek وان ایکس برو آدرس سایت بت یک سایت دوست دختر اونلی فنز فارسی پیدا کردن دوست دختر ورود به ریور پوکر پدرام مختاری پویان مختاری نازنین همدانی مونتیگو داوود هزینه بیوگرافی آیسان اسلامی بیوگرافی دنیا جهانبخت سایت رسمی حسین تهی بیوگرافی کوروش وانتونز سایت آرتا وانتونز رها وانتونز بیوگرافی ربکا قادری سحر قریشی بیوگرافی تتلو بیوگرافی مهدی طارمی الناز شاکردوست سایت عادل فردوسی پور بیوگرافی نیلی افشار بیوگرافی محمدرضا گلزار سایت armin2afm بیوگرافی شادمهر عقیلی بیوگرافی سردارآزمون بیوگرافی علیرضا بیرانوند بیوگرافی رامین رضاییان وریا غفوری بیوگرافی علی دایی بیوگرافی پوریا پوتک مدگل سایت حصین بیوگرافی صدف طاهریان فرشاد سایلنت بیوگرافی آریا کئوکسر بیوگرافی sogang بیوگرافی میا پلیز بیوگرافی مهراد هیدن سایت رسمی سهراب ام جی بیوگرافی علیرضا جی جی بیوگرافی بهزاد لیتو اشکان فدایی بیوگرافی رضا پیشرو بیوگرافی گلشیفته بیوگرافی هیپ هاپولوژیست بیوگرافی سارن بیوگرافی آدام مرادی بیوگرافی محمد هلاکویی بیوگرافی علی حسنی سایت رسمی علی حسنی بیوگرافی ساسی خواننده بیوگرافی ابی باربد معصومی حسینی فایننس بیوگرافی امیرحسین نام آور بیوگرافی امین فردین بیوگرافی فرزاد وجیهی